Captain Robert Scott was an explorer and officer in the Royal Navy. Having lead numerous expeditions prior to his South Pole one, Scott is experienced in dangerous situations, which is why he is in no great shock in his diary entry.
Scott intended for his diary to be read, meaning that in recording his expedition he includes a variety of literary devices in order for his diary to be more ‘readable’ and thus to engage his audience.
Furthermore, his diary is recording a dangerous, life threatening event which Scott is experiencing. Consequently, the text will include hyperbole (again, to engage the audience) and also a spectrum of adjectives.
Unfortunately, Captain Scott was narrowly beaten to the South Pole by another explorer, Roald Amudsen and his expedition went down in history as one of the most unequipped. He died on 29th March 1912 from the extreme cold on the return journey and his other team members also perished.